In interpreting Section 5 of the Act, the Commission has determined that a representation, omission or practice is deceptive if it is likely to: In addition, an act or practice is unfair if the injury it causes, or is likely to cause, is:
However, this research stream has neglected the possible interactive relationship between the current mood of consumers and the mood intrinsic to and the information contained within the advertisement. This paper discusses possible mood management strategies of consumers when they evaluate advertisements and presents a simple framework for understanding this phenomena.
Strong evidence suggests that individual choice behavior can be based on affective as well as rational factors Zajonc Further, the impact of mood states on Advertisement that is harmful to consumers consumer decision process appears to be a function of the valence of the current mood Gardner and Hill This work has popularized the "attitude toward the ad" stream of research which typically views this construct as an intervening variable that mediates the effects of the advertising message on brand attitudes and preferences Edell and Burke The assumption underlying this approach is that consumers are hedonistically motivated by the desire to feel good Hirschman and Holbrook Evidence suggests that mood may impact the encoding and retrieval of information contained in an ad Srull For example, consumers who are in positive moods upon exposure to an advertisement should encode favorable information about the advertised brand.
This may result in more positive brand attitudes than would occur under different mood-related conditions. The gap in our current knowledge involves an understanding of both effects simultaneously. In particular, how does a consumers mood state interact with the mood and information contained in an advertisement to produce ad and brand attitudes?
The answer to this question is the purpose of this article. The basis of this approach is that the search for emotional arousal is an important motivation for individuals when selecting products to consume.
Implicit to this perspective is the assumption that consumers consciously or unconsciously utilize the buying process to manage their moods Hill and Gardner In a study by Gardner and Hillsubjects in positive moods who used an experiential strategy had more positive post-processing moods than those who used an informational strategy, and subjects in negative moods who used an informational strategy had more positive post-processing moods than those who used an experiential strategy.
Interestingly, subjects in positive moods were more likely to use an experiential strategy than those in negative moods, and subjects in negative moods were more likely to use an informational strategy than those in positive moods.
This finding suggests that subjects may have been employing a mood management strategy during decision making. Diagrammatically, this relationship might take the form shown in Figure 1.
Through the process of empathy, the mood inherent to the ad may act to reduce, maintain, or improve the mood of the receiver Hill This could be characterized as the hedonic affective response of the consumer.
This could be characterized as the utilitarian affective response of the consumer. Gardner provides additional support for the dichotomous nature of advertisements by suggesting that ads designed to impact mood states contain two elements - cognitive mood inducers such as positive or negative statements information and non-cognitive mood inducers such as scary or happy music inherent mood.
Specifically, consumers in positive moods whose moods are extended after exposure to an advertisement will have more positive ad and brand attitudes than individuals whose moods are not extended. On the other hand, consumers in negative moods whose moods are transformed after exposure to an advertisement will have more positive ad and brand attitudes than individuals whose moods are not transformed.
A diagrammatic representation of this relationship might take the form portrayed in Figure 2. The following subsections provide a general discussion of this relationship for both positive and negative pre-processing mood conditions.
With regard to mood inherent to the ad, it can be characterized as consistent i.
Another issue involves the intensity of mood. Although the consumer behavior literature suggests that individuals have a limited tolerance for arousal HillRay and Wilkiethis principle has been applied solely to negative mood conditions.
Therefore, it will be discussed only in the negative pre-processing mood subsection. In terms of the informational content of an ad, the non-attribute information also can be characterized as consistent i.
However, the attribute-based information may be positioned somewhat differently. Mizerski, White, and Hunt suggest that "emotion as a benefit" is a viable and widely used product positioning strategy in advertisements.
However, including attempts to de-market products such as tobacco and liquor, "emotion as a cost" should be included as a potential advertising positioning strategy. Therefore, consumers in a positive pre-processing mood should prefer the blend of ad characteristics shown in Figure 3 to all other possible combinations since it should be perceived to have the highest probability of extending their current mood states.
These are also the ad characteristics that Advertisers should utilize if they anticipate that consumers will be receiving their advertisements in positive pre-processing moods due to vehicle source effects.
However, if advertisers wish to de-market a product, they may choose to use an entirely different strategy. Their goal might be to produce the most negative possible resulting mood and associate this mood with the product category under consideration.
This strategy is portrayed in Figure 4. For example, the mood inherent to the ad can be characterized as consistent i. Also, non-attribute information can be characterized as consistent i. Differences, however, exist for attribute-based information. If their negative pre-processing moods are very intense, consumers may not be able to cope with these feelings.
This situation may lead to a preference for ads with inconsistent moods and inconsistent non-attribute information so that they may escape from their current affective states. However, if the level of intensity of their pre-processing moods is in the moderate range, consumers may prefer ads that are consistent with their current moods in terms of mood and non-attribute information since these ads provide a justification for their feelings.The Effects of Advertisements on Consumers' Mood States: an Interactive Perspective Ronald Paul Hill, The American University ABSTRACT - Current literature in the mood area has focused on the ability of advertisements to elicit particular mood states or on the effects of mood on the processing of information contained in ads.
affect consumers' behavior or decisions about the product or service. In addition, an act or practice is unfair if the injury it causes, or is likely to cause, is: a lease advertisement for an automobile that promotes "$0 Down" may be misleading if significant and undisclosed charges are due at lease signing.
In addition, claims must be. Yes harmful to mental health. Advertising is harmful to the mental health of the majority of population across the world because it puts teenagers and children especially in doubt of their worth and beauty. Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.: Sponsors of advertising are typically businesses wishing to promote their products or services.
Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for . This means that they regularly advertise unhealthy or harmful things. Fast food adverts are a large part of the reason so many children are obese. The adverts just try to make children eat as much food as possible without any concern for the health costs.
Selling consumers By choosing to add an advertisement to a magazine article, TV show or podcast, the content creator is choosing to sell a portion of their audience’s attention.
The audience has devoted their time to watch the actual content, but they are instead subjected to watching an advertisement for a .