And surely that which is begun by breaking down the barriers of virtue, involves in its continuance destruction to every principle, and buries all sentiments in ruin! When you make men slaves, you In South Carolina, successful slave owners, such as the Middleton family from Barbados, established a system of full-blown, Caribbean-style slavery.
From its beginning, the Pentecostal movement was characterised by an emphasis on evangelistic outreach, and Pentecostal mission strategy placed evangelism as its highest priority.
Reports filtering back to the West to garnish newsletters would be full of optimistic and triumphalistic accounts of how many people were converted, healed and had received Spirit baptism, seldom mentioning any difficulties encountered or the inevitable cultural blunders made.
Early Pentecostal missionaries from North America and Europe were mostly paternalistic, often creating dependency, and sometimes they were even racist. The parochialism and rivalry of many Pentecostal missions made ecumenical co-operation difficult.
The tendencies towards paternalism created a reluctance to listen to voices from the Third World, and the need for a greater involvement in the plight of the poor and in opposing socio-political oppression are some of the issues that must be addressed.
But in spite of these problems, the Pentecostalism today has many lessons for the universal church in its mission. Their irrepressible advance from obscurity to center stage within ninety years suggests that only the unwary will underestimate their fortitude.
Pentecostals all over the world, but especially in the Third World, see the role of healing as good news for the poor and afflicted. Orality and the Pentecostal Gospel The relationship between the gospel and culture, and by implication, the relationship between the Christian faith and other faiths, is a much debated topic.
The expansion of Pentecostalism in Africa in the 20th Century can be attributed, at least partially, to cultural factors.
Whether we like it or not, this encounter cannot be avoided. His Pentecostal experience meant more than speaking in tongues and included loving in the face of hateful racism. The most important element of these liturgies is the active participation of every member in the congregation.
Pentecostalism is not a predominantly western movement, but both fundamentally and dominantly a Third World phenomenon. In spite of its significant growth in North America, probably less than a quarter of its members in the world today are white, and this proportion continues to decrease.
This has made the transplanting of its central tenets in the Third World and among marginalised minorities in the western world more easily assimilated. Many older missionary churches arose in western contexts of set liturgies, theologies, highly educated and professional clergy, and patterns of church structures and leadership with strongly centralised control.
In most cases, leadership was not kept long in the hands of western missionaries, and the proportion of missionaries to church members was usually much lower than that of older missions.
Churches were rapidly planted as a result. African Initiated Churches [xviii] are mostly churches of a Pentecostal type that have contextualised and indigenised Christianity in Africa. In African Pentecostalism, experience and practice are usually more important than the preciseness of dogma.
Evangelism, Indigenisation and Culture Indigenisation is a principle that has been hotly debated and little understood. One of the outstanding features of African Pentecostals is their religious creativity and spontaneously indigenous character, a characteristic held as an ideal by western missions for over a century.
The foundation for indigenisation to happen was the Holy Spirit. There is no place on earth where, if the gospel seed be properly planted, it will not produce an indigenous church.
The Holy Spirit can work in one country as well as in another. To proceed on the assumption that the infant church in any land must always be cared for and provided for by the mother mission is an unconscious insult to the people that we endeavour to serve, and is evidence of a lack of faith in God and in the power of the gospel.
These churches were founded in innovative evangelistic initiatives unprecedented in Christian history, motivated by a compelling need to preach and even more significantly, to experience a new message of the power of the Spirit. Most of Pentecostalism in Africa is more obviously an inculturated adaptation than a foreign imposition, with inevitable exceptions.
Furthermore, Pentecostals in Africa usually define their practices by reference to the Bible and not to traditional religions. They see their activities as creative adaptations to the local cultural context. At the same time, they might need to have a greater appreciation for the rich diversity of their cultural and religious past and not feel the need to bow to the cultural hegemony of North American Pentecostalism.
Demonising the cultural and religious past does not help explain the present attraction of Pentecostalism to African peoples, even though it might help in the religious competition that is a feature of pluralist societies.
Any religion that does not offer at least the same benefits as the old religion does will probably be unattractive. Christianity, particularly in its Pentecostal emphasis on the transforming power of the Holy Spirit, purports to offer more than the other religions did.
In Africa, Pentecostal-like movements manifested in thousands of indigenous churches have changed so radically the face of Christianity there, simply because they have proclaimed a holistic gospel of salvation that includes deliverance from all types of oppression like sickness, sorcery, evil spirits and poverty.
This has met the needs of Africans more fundamentally than the rather spiritualised and intellectualised gospel that was mostly the legacy of European and North American missionaries. The good news in Africa, Pentecostal preachers declare, is that God meets all the needs of people, including their spiritual salvation, physical healing, and other material necessities.
The phenomenon of mass urbanisation results in Pentecostal churches providing places of spiritual security and personal communities for people unsettled by rapid social change.
The more relevant the church becomes to its cultural and social context, the more prepared it will be to serve the wider society. All the widely differing Pentecostal movements have important common features: Their task was to share this all-embracing message with as many people as possible, and to accomplish this, African Pentecostal missionaries travelled far and wide.A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets.
A project of Liberty Fund, Inc. Facsimile PDF MB This is a facsimile or image-based PDF made from scans of the original book. Kindle KB This is an E-book formatted for Amazon Kindle devices.
EBook PDF KB This. The Development of the West, – 7. Examine the impact of the expansion of the railroad industry on the American economy, perceptions of time and space, standardization of time, technology, and business organization. Anglo-Americans and European immigrants.
Furthermore, although individual initiative was important. In Spanish and Portuguese America, an intricate system of racial classification emerged. Compared with the British and French, the Spanish and Portuguese were much more tolerant of racial mixing—an attitude encouraged by a shortage of European women—and recognized a wide range of racial gradations, including black, mestizo, quadroon, and.
The effects of the collision and continued subduction are numerous and extremely complicated. An important consequence, however, was the slicing off of crustal rock from the top of the underthrusting plate. The Indian National Congress, several Muslim associations, India and European expansion, c.
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table of contents. CONSTRAINTS ON THE EXPANSION OF THE GLOBAL FOOD SUPPLY by Henery W Kindall and David . The record of European expansion contains pages as grim as any in history.
The African slave trade—begun by the Africans and the Arabs and turned into a profitable seaborne enterprise by the Portuguese, Dutch, and English—is a series of horrors, from the rounding up of the slaves by local chieftains in Africa, through their transportation across the Atlantic, to their sale in the Indies.