Mental health care for latin americans

Latin America includes in geo-political terms thirteen countries in South America, six in Central America, Mexico, and thirteen located in the Caribbean Basin. Women have almost six more years of life expectancy than men

Mental health care for latin americans

The immigrant experience is another common bond. Nevertheless, Hispanic Americans are very heterogeneous in the circumstances of their migration and in other characteristics. To understand their mental health needs, it is important to examine both the shared and unique experiences of different groups of Hispanic Americans.

Mental health care for latin americans

One of the most distinguishing characteristics of the Hispanic-American population is its rapid growth. In the census, sooner than forecast, the number of Hispanics counted rose to In fact, census projections indicate that bythe number of Latinos will increase to 97 million; this number will constitute nearly one-fourth of the U.

Projections for the proportion of Hispanic youth are even higher. Persons of Mexican origin comprise the largest proportion of Latinos almost two-thirdswith the remaining third distributed primarily among persons of Puerto Rican, Cuban, and Central American origin, as shown in Figure U.

Latin America includes in geo-political terms thirteen countries in South America, six in Central America, Mexico, and thirteen located in the Caribbean Basin. Its total population reaches million people, 60% of whom (almost million) live in South America (with Brazil, Argentina and Colombia. Latino adults in need of mental health care are less likely than non-Latino Whites to access mental health services, and when they do receive care, it is more likely to be poor in quality (Institute of Medicine [IOM], a; United States Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], ). Culturally Competent Care for Latino Patients Karen Peterson-Iyer The material in this section is part of a larger project by the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics on culturally competent care; that is, health care that is sensitive to the differing values and needs of cultural subgroups within our pluralistic society.

Historical Context To place the growth of the Latino population in context, it is important to review some of the historical events that have brought Latinos to the United States.

Although the Spanish language and cultural influence form a bond among most Hispanics, many key differences among the four main Latino groups are related to the circumstances of their migration.

Mexicans have been U. After the Mexican Warwhen the United States took over large territories from Texas to California, the country gained many Mexican citizens who chose to remain in their "new" U.

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The considerable economic, social, and political instability during the Mexican Revolution contributed to the growth of the Mexican population in the United States. Economic pressures and wars have propelled subsequent waves of migration.

Both push factors economic hardships in Mexico and pull factors Mental health care for latin americans need for laborers in the United States have affected the flow.

Mental health care for latin americans

The sheer numbers of people who have come to the United States-well over 7 million-as well as the fact that many arrive "unauthorized" without documentation distinguishes Mexican immigration U. Puerto Ricans began arriving in large numbers on the U. High unemployment among displaced agricultural workers on the island also led to large-scale emigration to the mainland United States that continued through the s and s.

In the s, the migration pattern became more circular as many Puerto Ricans chose to return to the island. Although Cubans came to the United States in the second half of the 19th century and in the early part of the 20th century, the greatest influx of Cuban immigrants began after Fidel Castro overthrew the Fulgencio Batista government in Some of these immigrants, such as the educated professionals who came to the United States during the early phase of Cuban migration, have become well established, where-as others who arrived with few economic resources are less so.

Unlike immigrants from several other countries, many Cubans have gained access to citizenship and Federal support through their status as political refugees Cattan, Central Americans are the newest Latino subgroup in the United States.

Many Central Americans fled their countries por la situacion, a phrase that refers to the political terror and atrocities in their homelands Farias, ; Jenkins, ; Suarez-Orozco, Although the specific social, historical, and political contexts differ in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, conflicts in those countries led to a significant emigration of their citizens.

These are the 5 health challenges facing Latin America | World Economic Forum

The circumstances that caused various Hispanic groups to migrate greatly influence their experience in the United States. Cubans fled a Communist government, and, as a result, the U. Puerto Ricans, whether born on the mainland or in Puerto Rico, are by definition U. In contrast, many Central American immigrants are not recognized as political refugees, despite the fact that the war-related trauma and terror that preceded their immigration may place them at high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD and may make adjustment to their new home more difficult.

Many Latinos who arrive without proper documentation have difficulty obtaining jobs or advancing in them and live with the chronic fear of deportation. Finally, many Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Central Americans, and recent Cuban immigrants come as unskilled laborers or displaced agricultural workers who lack the social and economic resources to ease their adjustment.

Southwest see Table While many Southwestern Latinos are recent immigrants, others are descendants of Mexican and Spanish settlers who lived in the territory before it belonged to the United States. Some of these descendants, particularly those in New Mexico and Colorado, refer to themselves as "Hispanos.

Percentage of Hispanic Americans in State Populations: New York has 8. Although specific subgroups of Latinos are associated with specific geographical regions, important demographic shifts have resulted in the increased visibility of Latinos throughout the United States.

From toLatinos more than doubled in number in the following six states: Of the six States, Nevada is the only one located in a region with traditionally high concentrations of Latinos.

Thus, in addition to growing in numbers, Hispanic Americans are spreading throughout the United States. Family Structure Latinos are often referred to as family oriented Sabogal et al.

In many cases, family connections facilitate survival and adjustment. The importance of family can be seen in Hispanic living arrangements.

Although family characteristics vary by Latino subgroups, as a whole, Latinos, like Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, are most likely to live in family households and least likely to live alone. In addition, children especially the females tend to remain in the family until they marry.The goal, say the experts, is to improve mental health care in the region and to ensure that more Latin Americans have the possibility of defeating that black dog that follows many of them everywhere.

in community, clinical and epidemiological research on Latino mental health issues. Pathways to Care 5 Mental Health Issues in the Latino Community 6 socioeconomic status than U.S. born Mexican Americans, their mental health is. Aug 21,  · Approximately 30% of the population of Latin America and the Caribbean do not have access to health care for economic reasons and 21% do not seek care because of geographical barriers.

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2. Chapter 6 Mental Health Care for Hispanic Americans Introduction The Spanish language and culture are common bonds for many Hispanic Americans, regardless of whether they trace their ancestry to Africa, Asia, Europe, or the Americas.

The goal, say the experts, is to improve mental health care in the region and to ensure that more Latin Americans have the possibility of defeating that black dog that follows many of them everywhere.

Culturally Competent Care for Latino Patients Karen Peterson-Iyer The material in this section is part of a larger project by the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics on culturally competent care; that is, health care that is sensitive to the differing values and needs of cultural subgroups within our pluralistic society.

Mental health and mental health care in Latin America