The social economic and political background of the spanish civil war in the 20th century

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The social economic and political background of the spanish civil war in the 20th century

Latin America since the midth century The postwar world, —80 In Latin America as elsewhere, the close of World War II was accompanied by expectations, only partly fulfilled, of steady economic development and democratic consolidation.

Popular education also increased, as did exposure to the mass media and mass culture—which in light of the economic lag served to feed dissatisfaction.

History of Latin America - Latin America since the midth century | It won the Premio Espejo award in Inhe won the prestigious non-fiction prize, the Premio Espejo, with the Spanish version of Spain:
The emergence of modern Europe, 1500–1648 Aftermath of the Battle of GettysburgAmerican Civil WarJames Fearona scholar of civil wars at Stanford Universitydefines a civil war as "a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies".
Economy and society Back to the Rise and Fall of the Empire The beginning of the 20th century saw developments in industry which were concentrated in Catalunya and Basque, while the rest of the country remained agricultural. Much of the land however was unproductive and Spain struggled to produce enough food.

Military dictatorships and Marxist revolution were among the solutions put forward, but none were truly successful. Economic agenda and patterns of growth The economic shocks delivered by the depression and two world wars, in combination with the strength of nationalismtilted economic policy after strongly toward internal development as against the outward orientation that had predominated since independence.

The outward policy had been partially undermined by the trade controls and industrial promotion schemes adopted essentially as defensive measures in the aftermath of the depression and during World War II. They called for economic integration among the Latin American countries themselves, with a view to attaining economies of scale.

And they recommended internal structural reforms to improve the economic performance of their countries, including land reform both to eliminate underutilized latifundios and to lessen the stark inequality of income distribution that was an obstacle to growth of the domestic market.

The Spanish Civil War

In the small Caribbean and Central American republics and also some of the smaller and poorer South American nations, the prospects for ISI were sorely limited by market size and other constraints, and governments still hesitated to promote manufacturing at the expense of traditional primary commodities.

Overvalued exchange rates, which hurt traditional exports, made it easier to import industrial machinery and equipment.

The social economic and political background of the spanish civil war in the 20th century

Manufacturing costs generally remained high, and factories were overly dependent on imported inputs of all kinds including foreign capitalbut advances were not limited to consumer goods production.

In all major countries the output of intermediate and capital goods rose appreciably too. For example, in Argentina the state undertook construction of a steel industry, and in numerous other ways national governments further expanded their economic role. Starting in with agreements fostering economic union, such as the Latin American Free Trade Association and Central American Common Marketand continuing with the Andean Pact ofsome progress was made toward regional economic integrationbut the commitment to eliminate trade barriers was not as strong as in postwar Europe.

Intra-Latin American trade increased, but probably not much more than would have happened without special agreements.

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In any case, quantitative economic growth was visible almost everywhere. It was evident even when expressed as per capita GDP—that is, factoring in a population growth that in most countries was accelerating, because death rates had finally begun to fall sharply while birth rates remained high.

In the s in much of Latin America the annual rate of population increase came to exceed 3 percent. But there were clear differences in economic performance among countries.

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Brazil, with a diversified economic base and much the largest internal marketand Panamawith its canal-based service economy, posted the best records, their GDP per capita doubling between and ; Mexico and Venezuela did almost as well, as did Costa Rica. But the Argentine economy seemed to stagnate, and few countries scored significant gains.

Moreover, the conviction eventually grew in countries where ISI had been vigorously pushed that the easy gains in replacement of imports were coming to an end and that, to maintain adequate growth, it would be necessary to renew emphasis on exports as well.

World market conditions were favourable for a revival of export promotion; indeed, international trade had begun a rapid expansion at the very time that inward-directed growth was gaining converts in Latin America.20th century Historical Context. The 20th century was a period of great change in Spain.

The monarchy gave way to Primo de Rivera's dictatorship and then to the Second Spanish came to power after the end of the Civil War and governed in Spain through a military dictatorship until his death in The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, and ended on December 31, commencing decades of social and political debate.

A violent civil war broke out in Spain in when General Francisco Franco rebelled against the Second Spanish plombier-nemours.coms: s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s.

The social economic and political background of the spanish civil war in the 20th century

Failure to address the economic and social increases and increasing political awareness of the less-affluent population, as well as indirect intervention and economic funding to the main political groups by both the KGB and the CIA, as part of the Cold War, led to a political polarization under Socialist President Salvador Allende.

The economic background The century’s economic expansion owed much to powerful changes that were already under way by At that time, Europe comprised only between one-third and one-half the population it had possessed about Encyclopedia Britannica, The newly reunified United States experienced a tenuous peace following the American Civil War.

It was a period characterized by great technological advances, but also by increased political, economic, and social polarization. Spanish Civil War () Sometimes referred to as the dress rehearsal for World War II, the Spanish Civil War was fought between the Republicans, loyal to the democratic Spanish government, supported by the Soviet Union and Mexico, and the Nationalists, fascist rebels, supported by Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Portugal.

Overall Timeline - History of War in the 20th Century